Friedrich Gottlob Schulze

 * 28.01.1795 in Gävernitz/Meißen

 † 03.07.1860 in Jena

 Bertha Caroline Schulze, née Sturm

 * 28.08.1795 in Eisenach

 † 26.10.1857 in Jena

 University professor, national economist, farmer


Friedrich Gottlob Schulze founded the university study of agriculture in Germany. He was born in Gävernitz near Meissen, the son of a landowner. After three semesters of law in Leipzig, he was trained as a farmer by his father. In 1816 he attended a summer course at the Tiefurt estate near Weimar given by his future patron Karl Christoph Gottlieb Sturm. In 1817 Schulze was given the chief administration of the chamber estates of Grand Duke Carl August of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach in Tiefurt, Oberweimar and Lützendorf for two years. In 1819, Schulze received his doctorate from the University of Jena on the form and construction of Roman plows. He took over Sturm's lectures after his appointment to the University of Bonn-Poppelsdorf and was appointed professor in Jena in 1821. In 1832, Friedrich Gottlob Schulze acquired the Griesbach House, which he had leased for six years. The theology professor Johann Jakob Griesbach had the largest private lecture hall in Jena at the time built onto his stately home on Löbdergraben. It was here that Friedrich Schiller gave his inaugural lecture as professor of philosophy in 1789. Schulze set up his private agricultural institute in the house. In 1834 Schulze accepted an appointment to set up an agricultural teaching and experimental institute in Eldena in conjunction with the University of Greifswald. Five years later he returned to Jena accompanied by staff and students. He continued to run the agricultural teaching institute and established an experimental farm in Jena-Zwätzen in 1844. There he founded the Carl-Friedrich-Ackerbauschule, of which he was director until his death in July 1860. He wrote important scientific papers on national economic issues such as customs duties, the trade in sugar and paper money. He was also an important promoter of agricultural associations. Friedrich Gottlob Schulze was buried next to his wife, who had died three years earlier, and her mother. On the Fürstengraben, on the via triumphalis, there is a monument to Schulze with a bronze bust created by Friedrich Drake and inaugurated in 1867. Drake also created the monument to the university founder "Hanfried" on the market square of Jena.

© W. Wüst

Heinrich Wackenroder

* 08.03.1798 in Burgdorf

† 04.09.1854 in Jena


Bernhardine Luise Wilhelmine, geb. Luden

* 16.07.1815 in Jena

† 07.03.1902 in Jena


Alongside Johann Friedrich August Göttling (1753-1809) and Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849), Heinrich Wackenroder shaped the founding years of pharmacy in Jena. Wackenroder discovered carotene, also known as pro-vitamin A, in carrots. The human body forms retinin from carotene, without which humans could not see. Wackenroder also isolated the plant alkaloid corydalin and pentathionic acid. He was a modest, witty professor who expected exemplary moral conduct and sole devotion to study from his students. The son of a pharmacist, Wackenroder received his basic training in two pharmacies before completing his habilitation in 1828 after studies in Göttingen and Erlangen. With his appointment in the same year, he took over the management of the private Pharmaceutical Institute in Jena, which had been founded in 1821. To do so, he had to obtain a loan to buy the institution from his predecessor, which burdened him economically for years. For the first time in 1830, Wackenroder received a small salary for his teaching activities. After Döbereiner's death in 1849, he became a full professor. In addition to the legally secure training of pharmacists, pharmaceutical analysis as the basis for drug safety was close to his heart. Consequently, he became a pharmacy inspector in the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach and in the Duchy of Saxony-Altenburg. In 1849, Wackenroder founded the "Pharmazeutisch-naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Jena," was a journal editor and textbook author. He was a highly respected member of twenty scientific academies and societies. With his wife Wilhelmine, 26 years his junior and a daughter of his colleague Luden, he had five children. The list of godparents shows that numerous families of scholars were friends with him far beyond Thuringia. The death of his four-year-old daughter further undermined his frail health; he died four months after her. The Wackenroder pharmacy keeps his name alive in Jena. The rococo tombstone found its reuse by the Wackenroder family in the 19th century. Its three angels stand for faith, love and hope in reference to the apostle Paul.

© Th. Peschke

Friedrich Kreußler

* 14.09.1632 in Jena

† 09.04.1707 in Jena


Wilhelm Johann Kreußler

Ca. 04.1664 in Jena

† 11.09.1722 in Jena



For 160 years the student fencing education in Jena was in the hands of the Kreußler family. The progenitor of the fencing dynasty Wilhelm Kreußler (1597-1673) had settled in the city as a "student fencer" in 1619, one year after the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War. In 1669, 50 years after his arrival in Jena, Wilhelm Kreußler was granted the privilege of a fencing master by the Duke of Weimar, Johann Ernst, for himself and his two sons Gottfried and Friedrich. With this privilege, Wilhelm Kreußler had obtained territorial protection for himself and his heirs to teach fencing at the university and in the city of Jena. Wilhelm Kreußler's fencing floor is said to have been located in a superstructure on a city wall tower, known today as the "Red Tower". His younger son Friedrich helped teach under his father. When Friedrich died in 1707, the existence of the old Kreußler fencing ground on the Rotem Turm came to an end. Wilhelm Kreußler's eldest son Gottfried (1624-1682) had his own fencing ground, which today was located approximately "Unterm Markt" in the Urlauschen Haus. Gottfried's son, Johann Wilhelm Kreußler took over the fencing ground after his father's death in 1682. One year later the ducal privilege was transferred to the just 19 year old. There is a legend about Johann Wilhelm Kreußler, called "the Lion", that in 1712 he disarmed and defeated the Saxon Elector August the Strong in a fencing match in disguise. Upon this, the Elector is said to have exclaimed, "Either you are Beelzebub himself, or ... the Kreussler of Jena!" to which Kreußler bowed and replied, "The latter, Electoral Grace!" Johann Wilhelm Kreußler was followed by his son Heinrich Wilhelm (1690-1752) and the adopted Johann Wolfgang Bieglein (d. 1780) as the last privileged fencing masters of the Kreußler fencing dynasty. The tomb of the Kreußler family is one of the most beautiful monuments in the cemetery: the figure of the winged god of time with the hourglass in raised hand, next to it the female figures of faith and hope. Decorations such as acanthus and a coat of arms adorn the tomb. In Jena, Kreußlerstraße commemorates this sporting family.

© Ch. Apfel

Imanuel Christian Wilhelmi

 * 03.09.1745 in Jena

 † 16.03.1827 in Jena

 Court pharmacist, friend of Hrzg. Carl August and Goethe


The pharmacist Immanuel Christian Wilhelmi was known in the city as an eccentric with a somewhat derb-witty sense of humor. He worked for many years as a provisor, i.e. journeyman pharmacist, with the court pharmacist Immanuel Christoph Heßling. After his death, he was Anna Amalia in 1770 to run the court pharmacy at the Jena market. Jena market. Wilhelmi was married twice, first to the widow of Heßling's widow and, after her death, to the wealthy widow of an innkeeper. Many stories and jokes were circulated about this strange fellow. Thus he always wore a yellow robe that smelled of the essences of his trade and the of his trade and the meals of the past days. Besides his pharmacy he successfully ran a wholesale wine shop. Often even the Grand Duke Carl August of Weimar would come over and have breakfast at the court apothecary's to to enjoy the wine cellar and Wilhelmi's coarseness. Also with the

Wilhelmi was also on good terms with the students at the university and was popular and was popular with them because of his generosity. Thus Wilhelmi gave free tables and spent college funds. He gave medicine and money to the poor. The Jena Kurrende, a student choir, 400 thalers. The title of council in 1809 because of his patriotic attitude for the good of the city. for the good of the city. In his last will and testament, Immanuel Christian Wilhelmi made it his duty to his heirs to provide him with a gravestone, "but not a shabby one, but one that will not disgrace me or him", and to have an inscription written by himself placed on it. written by himself. The grave monument, designed in noble simplicity, is, as it were, a stone calling card. a stone calling card: "Me, Immanuel Christian Wilhelmi, born on September 3, 1745, was court pharmacist, Kommerzienrath, also once postmaster, lived troubled by many a doubt, but did not die unprepared. Ignorance and error about the hereafter is the lot of man. Trusting in an all-powerful and all-good God, I have lived 81 years and now I will become dust and ashes”.

On the On the back of the pedestal is written: "Honesty, Friendship, love and wine was his element and benevolence his practice."

© C. Mann

Bruno Hildebrand


* 06.03.1812 in Naumburg/Saale


† 29.01.1878 in Jena


Professor, statistician, politician



Bruno Hildebrand had prepared for the Gymnasium without the knowledge of his parents and received a free position in Schulpforta. After one semester of theology at the University of Leipzig he changed to the study of philosophy, philology and history. He was a follower of the "Alte Leipziger Burschenschaft Germania". Persecuted because of this membership, he went to Breslau. He received his doctorate in 1836 in Breslau and habilitated in the same year. Appointed associate professor in Breslau in 1839, Bruno Hildebrand accepted the chair of political science at the University of Marburg in 1841. There he wrote his main work on national economics, a critique of the existing economic system. As prorector of the university, Hildebrand had defended politically active students against the government. His suspension from teaching in February 1847 was not lifted until the general amnesty in March 1848; a criminal case against him ended in acquittal. Hildebrand was henceforth absorbed by politics, representing the Marburg constituency in the Frankfurt National Assembly. There he was particularly committed to solving traffic problems. Political differences again resulted in an arrest warrant in Hesse, which Hildebrand was able to evade by fleeing to Switzerland in 1851. He was hospitably received in Zurich. He received a professorship in political science and was able to join his family. Bruno Hildebrand had been married to Clementine Guttentag since 1839. The first-born son Richard later also became a national economist. Quarrels in Bern, where Bruno Hildebrand had been a professor of national economics and co-founder and director of the East-West Railway since 1856, led him to accept a call to the University of Jena in 1861. Here, in turn, he also demonstrated his organizational skills as director of the Statistical Office of the Thuringian States. His work in Jena was also responsible for the construction of the Saalebahn and the Weimar-Gera railroad. In Jena, Hildebrandstrasse commemorates him. The portrait bust on his grave was created by his son, the sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand, who was ennobled in 1903.

© Ch. Apfel

Karl Julius Guyet (1802 - 1861)

Karl Julius Guyet was born on March 11, 1802 in Homburg v. d. Höhe. His father was a French captain. He attended the Gymnasium in Heidelberg and also studied law from 1818 in Heidelberg. as well as at the University in Berlin. He received his doctorate in 1823 in Heidelberg and in the same year followed his habilitation, also in Heidelberg. There he was appointed associate professor in 1827.
In 1836 Guyet accepted the appointment as full professor and Oberappelationsgerichtsrat in Jena, and in 1843 he was appointed Geheimer Justizrat.

From 1839 he was elected Rector/Prorector of the University of Jena several times, and from 1856 he was full professor of the Faculty of Law and the Schöffenstuhl.
Prof. Guyeth was an authority in the field of procedural law.
Karl Julius Guyet died in Jena on April 8, 1861.

© Ch. Apfel

Emanuel Sinowiewitsch Rabinowitsch (1850–1884)


Rabinowitsch, of Jewish descent, was born in Kherson, Russia.

 He was a journalist and it can be assumed that he was in the practice of his profession in 1884 in Jena.


He was married to Minna née Stanislawsky, that can be inferred from the civil death register.

According to the inscription on his gravestone, his parents and one brother were still alive at the time of his death.

The Hebrew inscription on the west side of the pedestal follows the "form", i.e. the basic pattern of Hebrew tomb inscriptions. We do not know who thought about and executed these inscriptions, which indicate the exact knowledge and deep relations with Jewish rituals.


Unfortunately, we cannot answer any of the questions why Rabinowitsch was in Jena, nor about the cause of his early death and why he was buried as a Jew in the Johannis cemetery, since no sources could be found for this.

© B. Jelke, gekürzt: Ch. Apfel


 Friedrich Siegmund Voigt (1781–1850) 



Voigt was born on 1 Oct 1781 in Gotha. His father, the mathematician and later Jena professor Johann Heinrich Voigt (1751-1823), the mother, Charlotte Eleonore Hediwg née Blumenbach (1727-1794), was the daughter of the prorector at the Gymnasium in Gotha Heinrich Blumenbach (1709-1787).

In 1789 he came to Jena with his father when he was appointed to the alma mater.

He studied natural sciences . In 1893 he received a doctorate in philosophy and habilitated as a private lecturer in botany. He began lecturing in the fall semester of 1804.


Goethe became aware of him because he spread Goethe's methamorphosis doctrine through words and writings. Goethe promoted him strongly, so that he could undertake several study trips, among other things, to Paris, London Florence and Rome from 1809. On his travels he also met with Humboldt, Jussieu and Cuvier.

In 1810 he was appointed as a full professor, received the title of a Bergrat and later that of a Sächsisch-Weimarischen Geheimen Hofrat.

In 1827 he called himself professor of medicine and in 1835 professor of medicine and botany.

He was married to Susette von Loevenich.

Due to the turmoil of the Battle of Jena and Auerststedt, in which the Botanical Garden at the Fürstengraben suffered severe war damage and the director, Franz-Josef Schelver (1778-1832) had left the city in flight, Friedrich Siegmund Voigt became director of the Botanical Garden on Goethe's recommendation.


He rebuilt the botanical garden and designed it according to new principles (Jussieu's system), always accompanied by Goethe's interest and participation.

Voigt was a member of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen and in 1821 he was elected a member of Leopldina.

Friedrich Siegmund Voigt died in Jena on December 10, 1850.


© Ch.Apfel


Johann Christian Friedrich Körner (1778 – 1847)

Mechanic, teacher of Carl Zeiss
Johann Christian Friedrich Körner was born in Weimar on August 8, 1778, the first son of the white baker Johann Christian August Körner and his wife Dorothea Sophie. After completing his schooling in Weimar, he trained as a mechanic. Friedrich Körner was encouraged by Duke Carl August and Goethe, so he also attended mathematical and scientific lectures during his apprenticeship. After the apprenticeship years followed the years of travel (1799 - 1807), with a grant from the "Weimarischen Cammercasse". Back in Weimar, he took over the position of court mechanic, and in the same year he was given responsibility for the University of Jena, through the mediation of Goethe.
When Döbereiner was called to Jena for the professorship of chemistry, he needed physical and chemical equipment such as an air pump. Körner received the order to manufacture it. In the same year, the designer was able to report completion and the apparatus was demonstrated in the presence of the poet prince and the high lords from Weimar in an experimental lecture by Döbereiner. The close cooperation between Körner and Döbereiner established an almost lifelong research partnership, also in the production of glassware and optically usable glass.
On April 1, 1812, Duke Carl August founded the Jena Observatory. The production of equipment and the operation of the observatory became Körner's main tasks for the next few years. After learning the ropes of weather recording, Körner began making thermometers, barometers, hygrometers, rain and wind gauges, etc. Through a donation to the observatory by the hereditary duchess Maria Pavlovna, Körner was able to construct a parallactic telescope with Münchow (1778-1836), a mathematician. The glass used, from France, was streaky and uneven. Körner therefore undertook his own glass melting experiments, which became the focus of his work until the end of his life.
Körner bought a house in Grietgasse in 1817 and moved with his family to Jena. He also set up a workshop, which he later expanded with a small glassworks.
In 1819, he received his doctorate and was listed as a private lecturer and court mechanic at the philosophical faculty.
Until the end of his life, Körner conducted experiments on glass production, in which his apprentice Carl Zeiss was also involved.
At the suggestion of the biologist Professor Schleiden, Körner turned to the construction of microscopes. These were high magnification magnifying glasses. In 1847, the year of Körner's death, Zeiss began his successful entrepreneurial journey with similar models in his newly founded workshop.
© W. Albrecht, gekürzt: Ch.Apfel

Hereditary burial place of the tanner family Eckardt

Friedrich Christian Eckardt (1726–1791)

Marie Susanne Eckardt, geb. Etzdorf (unbek.–1750), 1. Ehefrau

                        Sophie Marie Eckardt, geb Reinhardt (unbek.–1790), 2. Ehefrau


                        Friedrich Johann Georg Eckardt (1767–1786), Sohn des Friedrich


                                       Christian Eckardt und der Marie Sophie, geb. Reinhardt


                        Johannes Reinhold Louis Eckardt (1852–1932)


                        Louise Eckardt, geb. Goßler (1860–1935), Ehefrau des J.Louis Eckardt



Here rest the bones of Mr. Christian Friedrich Eckardt, E.H.St. Rathes zu Jena Ober=Kämmerers und Gerichts=Schöppens, as well as Ober=Aeltesten des Ehrsammen Loh=Gerber=Hand=Werckes allhier zu Jena. his Hr. father was: Joh. George Eckardt a faithful school teacher at Linda, where he was born ao. 1726, d. 9 Decbr. He married for the first time ao. 1749 d. 17. Novbr: with Susanen Marien Etzdorffin, from Pößneck, from whom he had a son, Adolph Adam Christian anno. 1750 d. 21 Octbr. was born, but since the mother died d. 22 Octbr. cj. a., he became a widower, and lost ao. 1765 d. 30 Apr: also this child by death.  For the second time he married ao. 1751 d. 25 Octbr: with Marien Sophien Reinhardtin, Hr. Daniel Reinhardts, Amts=Gerichts=Schöppens, Bürgers und Lo=Gerber=Ober=Meisters zu Eckardsberge eheleibl: einzige Tochter. In this marriage lived ... 39 years, and begat 5 sons and 2 daughters, of which 2 sons are still alive, which have been given to their parents, but the others died earlier than the parents, and one son Joh: George Fried: rests here with them. When at the end of 1790, Apr. 28, a stroke also tore this wife in the 58th year of her age from his side; this shook his health so that he also succeeded her in 1791, Sept. 2, by death and thus brought his age, in which he had 4 children, to 64 years. 38 weeks.  O! so may my soul also die the death of the righteous and may my end be like this end.  Symb: What you do, consider the end.




Tanning or red tanning is a special form of tanning that processed cattle hides into durable, strong leathers that were used for shoe soles, boots, saddles or satchels.


© Ch. Apfel